Includes instruction in pc ideas, information techniques, networking, working techniques, laptop hardware, the Web, software program purposes, help desk ideas and drawback solving, and principles of customer service. Quantum computers, however, use qubits, which are usually subatomic particles comparable to electrons or photons. Generating and managing qubits is a scientific and engineering challenge. Some companies, such as IBM, Google, and Rigetti Computing, use superconducting circuits cooled to temperatures colder than deep space. Others, like IonQ, lure individual atoms in electromagnetic fields on a silicon chip in extremely-excessive-vacuum chambers. In both instances, the purpose is to isolate the qubits in a managed quantum state.